ESTERS FOR MORE ENVIRONMENTAL-FRIENDLY DRILLING FLUID
Drilling fluid is one of the important components in oil and gas exploration. It serves essential functions including the removal of cuttings; lubricating and cooling the drill bit; sealing permeable formations; suspending solids even after drilling (and consequently fluid flow) has halted, and controlling subsurface pressure to prevent formation damage. Due to rising energy demand, exploration has extended into the delicate marine region. Nevertheless, existing diesel and mineral oil-based hydrocarbon have very poor biodegradability and high toxic leading to the deterioration of benthic marines’ lives through cuttings disposal or spilled.